Neem is propagated by seed, cuttings and root suckers but seed is the most viable method of propagation. Naturally birds dispersed the neem seed through their droppings. Viability of the neem seed remains for very short period hence it is recommended to use yellow ripe neem fruits to collect viable neem seed. It gives more than 95 % germination which declines to 10-15% in 2-4 months depending upon storage and weather conditions. Collected neem fruits are first depulped (removal of pulp and outer fruit cover) using clean water and dried in the shade for 1-2 days. Treat dried neem seed with fungicide or trichoderma to protect young sapling from fungal damage.
Treated seed are then planted on the nursery raise bed having proper mixture of soil : sand : organic manure at 2-5 cm (plant to plant) x 15-10 cm (Row to row) spacing at 2.0-2.5 cm depth or in the poly-bags filled with proper soil mixture. For better root growth 6”x 12” size poly bags is recommended with drain holes at 3” from the bottom. Germination starts in 7-10 days. The after-care like watering , weeding and inter-culture to keep soil well aerated to be done. Cover the nursery area with white plastic shed to avoid damping off damage by excess rains and water. The neem sapling grown on the nursery bed are need to be removed after 2-3 months and to be shifted to planting site or in poly-bags. Saplings in the poly-bags can be kept for the year as per plantation need. The plant height of 45-60 cm is best for plantation. It is to be planted in the pit of size 30-60×30-60×30-60 cm as per soil conditions.