The Neem Tree

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The Neem Tree
The Neem Tree

The Neem Tree

Prof. H. Schmutterer

 The most comprehensive and best illustrated treatment of the fascinating Indian neem tree (Azadirachta indica) and its unique substances.

 The extracts from the tree have an enormously broad range of applications. The main substance azadirachtin, a tetranortriterpenoid, influences the hormonal system of insects, exerting thereby a pesticidal effect. Feeding activity, reproduction and flying ability of insects are also affected. Azadirachtin has a very low toxicity to mammals, is biologically degradable and can be easily extracted from the seeds of the tree. Side effects on non- targets are slight.

 Other important uses of neem tree products are:-

  • Cure of diseases of men and animals
  • population control
  • manure and nitrification inhibitors
  • feeds for domestic animals
  • soap production

 With this exhaustive treatment of the neem tree and closely related plants, this book provides us with an impressive example of the varied uses of renewable resources in sustainable agriculture and elsewhere…………………

 

Table of Contents

Foreword (K. MARAMOROSCH) III
Introductory Remarks (H. SCHMUTTERER) IV
Acknowledgments VI
List of Contributors VII
Table of Contents XI
1 The Tree and Its Characteristics (H. SCHMUTTERER) 1
1.1 Taxonomy 1
1.2 Common Names 2
1.3 Botanical Characteristics 3
1.4 Geographical Distribution 7
1.5 Ecology 9
1.6 Pests and Diseases, Parasitic Plants, and Disorders of Unknown Etiology 12
1.7 Growth, and Yield of Fruit 29
1.8 Propagation, Selection, and Breeding 32
1.9 References 34
2 Biologically Active Ingredients 39
2.1/I Azadirachtin and Other Triterpenoids – Part I (W. KRAUS) 39
2.2/I Diterpenoids and Nonterpenoidal Compounds – Part I (W.KRAUS) 78
2.1/II Azadirachtin and Other Triterpenoids – Part II (W. KRAUS) 80
2.2/II Diterpenoids and Nonterpenoidal Compounds – Part II (W.KRAUS) 98
2.3 Azadirachtin Content of Neem Seed Kernels from Different Regions of the World (K. ERMEL) 111
2.4 Neem Tissue Culture: Methods and Production of Limonoids (E.D. MORGAN, E. J. ALLEN) 117
3 Effects on Viruses and Organisms 127
3.1 Viruses (A. EPPLER) 127
3.2 Bacteria (A. EPPLER) 142
3.3 Fungi (J.C. LOCKE) 156
3.4 Protozoa: Protozoans (H. SCHMUTTERER) 166
3.5 Nematoda: Nematodes (V. MOJUMDER) 168
3.6 Mollusca: Molluscs (H. SCHMUTTERER) 197
3.7 Crustacea: Crustaceans (I.F. GRANT) 198
3.8 Acarina: Mites (K.R.S. ASCHER, M. MAZOR, F.A. MANSOUR) 207
3.9 Insecta: Insects 218
3.9.1 Biological Effects of Azadirachtin and Other Neem Ingredients 218
3.9.1.1 Settling on Treated Host Plants and Egg-laying Behavior (H. SCHMUTTERER) 218
3.9.1.2 Feeding Behavior (W.M. BLANEY, M.S.J. SIMMONDS) 223
3.9.1.3 Activity (Fitness, Mobility, Vigor) (H. SCHMUTTERER, H. WILPS) 229
3.9.1.4 Growth and Metamorphosis (H. REMBOLD) 237
3.9.1.5 Reproduction (H. SCHMUTTERER, H. REMBOLD) 254
3.9.1.6 Cellular Actions of Azadirachtin (A.J. MORDUE [LUNTZ]) 266
3.9.1.7 Azadirachtins: Structure-Activity Relations in Epilachna varivestis (H. REMBOLD, I.-H. PUHLMANN) 275
3.9.1.8 Histopathology (U. SCHLÜTER) 286
3.9.2 Effects of Neem / Azadirachtin by Order of Insecta: Insects 298
3.9.2.1 Collembola: Springtails 298
3.9.2.2 Blattodea (Blattariae): Roaches or Cockroaches (M. MAZOR, K.R.S. ASCHER) 298
3.9.2.3 Dermaptera: Earwigs 301
3.9.2.4 Caelifera: Short-horned Grasshoppers and Locusts (C.M.Y. NICOL, D.C. ASSADSOLIMANI, J. LANGEWALD) 301
3.9.2.5 Ensifera: Crickets (H. SCHMUTTERER) 318
3.9.2.6 Phasmida: Walkingsticks (H. SCHMUTTERER) 319
3.9.2.7 Isoptera: Termites (H. SCHMUTTERER) 320
3.9.2.8 Psocoptera: Booklice 322
3.9.2.9 Thysanoptera: Thrips (M. KLEIN, K.R.S. ASCHER, H. SCHMUTTERER) 322
3.9.2.10 Phthiraptera: Sucking and Biting Lice (M.S. MULLA, T. SU) 327
3.9.2.11 Hemiptera/Heteroptera: True Bugs (A. DORN) 329
3.9.2.12 Hemiptera/Homoptera: Leaf- and Planthoppers, Aphids, Psyllids, Whiteflies and Scale Insects (R.C. SAXENA) 342
3.9.2.13 Coleoptera: Beetles (H. SCHMUTTERER) 365
3.9.2.14 Siphonaptera (Aphaniptera): Fleas (M.S. MULLA, T. SU) 374
3.9.2.15 Hymenoptera: Ants, Bees and Wasps (H. SCHMUTTERER) 376
3.9.2.16 Planipennia: Lacewings 378
3.9.2.17 Lepidoptera: Butterflies and Moths (M.B. ISMAN) 378
3.9.2.18 Diptera: Mosquitoes and Muscoid Flies (H. WILPS) 401
3.9.3 List of Insect Pests Susceptible to Neem Products (H. SCHMUTTERER, R.P. SINGH) 411
3.10 Effects on Vertebrata: Vertebrates (H. SCHMUTTERER) 456
4 Neem Products for Integrated Pest Management, Practical Results of Neem Application Against Pests, and Development of Resistance 459
4.1 Neem Products for Integrated Pest Management 459
4.1.1 The Smallholder’s Homemade Products (C. HELLPAP, M. DREYER) 459
4.1.2 Commercial Products: Standardization and Problems of Quality Control (K. ERMEL, H. SCHMUTTERER, H. KLEEBERG) 470
4.2 Practical Results with Neem Products Against Pests 480
4.2.1 Rice (R.C. SAXENA) 480
4.2.2 Corn (C. HELLPAP) 491
4.2.3 Vegetables and Food Legumes (H. OSTERMANN, M. DREYER) 497
4.2.4 Banana (R.C. SAXENA) 512
4.2.5 Forest Trees, Ornamental Trees, and Shrubs (H. SCHMUTTERER) 517
4.2.6 Pests of the Household and Fabric (H. SCHMUTTERER) 523
4.2.7 Pests of Stored Products (R.C. SAXENA) 524
4.2.8 Arthropods Affecting Man and Animals (M.S. MULLA, T. SU) 538
4.2.9 Control of Pests of Ornamentals with ‘MARGOSAN-O’/’NEEMAZAD’ in Greenhouses in the USA (J.F. KNAUSS, I.F. WALTER) 553
4.2.10 Results with Commercial Neem Formulations Produced in India (B.S. PARMAR, S562. SINHA) 562
4.2.11 Examples of Integrated Pest Management Programs Including Neem in Southern India (V. MARIAPPAN, S. JAYARAJ) 592
4.3 Development of Resistance to Azadirachtin and Other Neem Ingredients (M. VÖLLINGER, H. SCHMUTTERER) 598
5 Toxicity of Neem to Vertebrates and Side Effects on Beneficials and Other Ecologically Important Nontarget Organisms 607
5.1 Toxicity to Mammals Including Humans (L. NIEMANN, S. STINCHCOMBE, V. HILBIG) 607
5.2 Toxicity to Birds and Fish (M. JACOBSON [deceased], L. NIEMANN, S. STINCHCOMBE) 623
5.3 Side Effects on Beneficials (H. SCHMUTTERER) 628
6 Neem in Medicine and Veterinary Medicine 657
6.1 Medicinal Uses Including Pharmacology in Asia (A.Y. KETKAR, C.M. KETKAR) 657
6.2 Neem for Control of Fertility and Sexually Transmitted Pathogens of the Reproductive Tract (G.P. TALWAR, P. RAGHUVANSHI, M. JACOBSON [deceased]) 666
6.3 Control of Vectors of Causal Agents of Human Diseases (V.P. SHARMA) 678
6.4 Uses in Animal Health (S.S. CHOUSALKAR) 688
7 Industrial and Other Uses of Neem Products 695
7.1 Neem Seed Crush, Deoiled Neem Cake and Neem-coated Urea as Manure and/or Nitrification Inhibitors (C.M. KETKAR, M.S. KETKAR) 695
7.2 Neem Cake in Feeds for Domestic Animals (C.M. KETKAR, M.S. KETKAR) 705
7.3 Production of Neem Soap (C.M. KETKAR, M.S. KETKAR) 715
7.4 Further Uses for the Neem Tree and Its Products (H. SCHMUTTERER) 720
8 Economic, Socioeconomic and Policy Considerations, and Neem in Sociocultural Life 727
8.1 Considerations on Neem’s Current Use for Pest Management (C. HELLPAP, P. FÖRSTER, S. AHMED) 727
8.2 Neem in Sociocultural Life in Southern Asia (S. AHMED) 739
9 Other Meliaceous Plants Containing Ingredients for Integrated Pest Management and Other Purposes 745
9.1 Azadirachta spp 745
9.1.1 The Thai Neem Tree: Azadirachta siamensis (Val.) (K. SOMBATSIRI, K. ERMEL, H. SCHMUTTERER) 745
9.1.2 The Tiam, Sentang or Marrango Tree: Azadirachta excelsa (Jack) (H. SCHMUTTERER, K. ERMEL, M.B. ISMAN) 760
9.2 Melia spp 770
9.2.1 The Persian Lilac or Chinaberry Tree: Melia azedarach L. (K.R.S. ASCHER, H. SCHMUTTERER, M. MAZOR, C.P.W. ZEBITZ, S.N.H. NAQVI) 770
9.2.2 Melia toosendan (H.H. XU, J.F. CHIU [deceased]) 821
9.2.3 Melia volkensii (Gürke) (H. REMBOLD, R.W. MWANGI) 827
9.3 Chemistry and Biological Activity of Ingredients of Other Species of Meliaceae (M.B. ISMAN, J.T. ARNASON, G.H.N. TOWERS) 833
Index 851


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